Mālama Pūpūkea-Waimea MLCD
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Stamoulis & Friedlander (2012) -

A seascape approach to investigating fish spillover across a marine protected area boundary in Hawaii

PDFClick here to see the article.


Tide Pool Research Project - Anne Rosinki, M.S. (2012)

Creating Comprehensive Protected Areas:
The Ecology of the Pūpūkea Tide Pools and their Value to the Pūpūkea Marine Life Conservation District

PDFClick here to see her presentation.


MPW Talk Story Series


Science Talk Story: On August 2009, three leading scientists came to talk to us about ways to achieve “more fish and healthy reefs”. Click here to see their presentations.

Biological Activities in and around the Pūpūkea MLCD


PDFClick here for a 2010 study by Dr. Alan Friedlander on the ecological benefits of the Pūpūkea-Waimea MLCD.

University of Hawaii`i Sea Grant Program: Sea Grant conducted the earliest surveys of potential areas for marine reserve designation in Hawai`i. The study conducted by William Kimmerer and Woodrow Durbin, Jr., published in 1975 as “The Potential for Additional Marine Conservation Districts on Oahu and Hawaii,” was a response to concerns about depletion of Hawai`i’s near shore marine resources. In a poll of nearly 1800 people, a very strong response was found in favor of more marine reserves. The second choice for a new reserve on O`ahu was Pūpūkea. Click here for a copy of the study.

Public Park: The park along the immediate shoreline is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of Honolulu.

Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) manages the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, established in 1992. The sanctuary is a seasonal home to an estimated 4000 to 5000 humpback whales that migrate to Hawai`i from Alaska every year. Here, the whales breed, calve, and nurse their young; this is the only place in the U.S. that these whales reproduce. Starting at Pua`ena Point near Hale`iwa, the Sanctuary includes waters off the Pūpūkea-Waimea MLCD and stretches toward north toward and around Kahuku Point to Kahana Bay. click here for the detailed O`ahu map,. Other state waters include the south shore of Maui, the north shore of Kauai, the south-east shore of Oahu, and the Kohala coast of the Big Island. Click here for a map of the sanctuary, and here for Sanctuary FAQ

State Department of Health: The D.O.H., through its Clean Water Branch and Environmental Planning Office, posts three kinds of water quality warnings: Brown-Water advisories related to storm runoff, High Indicator Bacterial Advisories, and Sewage Spills. The latest D.O.H water quality test was taken from Kalualoa, Sharks Cove, on January 5 2006.

U.S. Geological Survey’s Pūpūkea Road Rain Gage: Daily samples are taken from the Pūpūkea rain gage located 1,060 feet above mean ocean level.

U.S. Geological Survey’s Kamananui (Waimea) Rain Gage: Daily samples are taken from an elevation of 720 feet above mean ocean level.

Hawai`i Institute of Marine Biology -- Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: CRAMP conducted early scientific studies of the P?p?kea MLCD before its expansion to include Waimea Bay. These studies indicated concerns about high levels of human use, the intensiveness of the fishing effort in the area, and depleted fish stocks. CRAMP recommended additional management measures and enlargement of the MLCD. click here for more information on CRAMP

Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (Research Program): Principal analysis has been done on the effectiveness of Marine Managed Areas and MLCD zones. Results from the Pūpūkea MLCD appears to have shown little or no change and no increase in fish.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency: The EPA has a program called Beach Watch, and Hawaii is one of the states receiving funds for environmental monitoring. Periodic testing is done at major beach sites. The most recent water-quality tests conducted in or near the Pūpūkea MLCD were taken on January 10, 2006. This information is found online at “BEACON”—Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification.

Surfrider Foundation/Rashguard.org: Rashguard is an organization which conducts testing or receives results from samples collected. The last Rashguard tests taken in or around the Pūpūkea MLCD were taken on December 29, 2005, at Waimea Bay.

University of Hawaii, Botany Department: Currently there is an ongoing study (conducted by Koa Shultz) of a rare Limu in the Pūpūkea MLCD. The Hawaiian name is not known at this point, but the scientific name for the species is Peleophycus. Current research has shown that the Limu can be found only in the springtime, but it cannot be found every spring. It is unknown if the plant alternates or grows only under certain conditions. Research is ongoing.

NOAA/NOS/NCCOS/CCMA, Pūpūkea MLCD Study: A 2006 statewide study of Hawai`i’s eleven MLCDs titled “Fish Habitat Utilization Patterns and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Marine Protected Areas in Hawai‘i: Integration of NOAA Digital Benthic Habitats Mapping and Coral Reef Ecological Studies.” was conducted by Alan Friedlander, Eric Brown, Mark Monaco, and Athline Clark (NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 23). click here for an abstract of the report. The study results showed that in the P?p?kea-Waimea MLCD, overall fish weight was four times higher in the MLCD compared to the outside areas open to fishing. Of the eleven MLCDs tested, P?p?kea fell somewhere around the middle in relation to fish weight and reef life. Fish weight outside the MLCD was considered low (likely due to overfishing).

Results showed that in the Pūpūkea MLCD, overall fish weight was four times higher in the MLCD compared to the outside areas open to fishing. Of the eleven MLCDs tested, Pūpūkea fell somewhere around the middle in relation to fish weight and reef life. Fish weight outside the MLCD was considered low (likely due to overfishing).

Major fish found in the MLCD were maikoiko, maiii, naenae and umaumalei. No major apex fish such as ulua, or ‘omilu were found. Outside the MLCD, Hinalea lauwili and maiii were common. Coral cover was 10%. Macroalgae was found to be low inside the MLCD but higher outside.

Additional Links

PDFMonitoring Hawaii's Marine Protected Areas
(8.74 MB PDF document)

PDFSea Grant Kimmerer study
(3.46 MB PDF document)

PDFEnvironmental Assessment for Special Management Area Permit for "Pupukea Village" (aka "Shark's Cove Mall")
(1.75MB PDF document)

PDFMPAs in Hawai'i


DAR Guide to Pupukea MLCD

DLNR Division of Aquatic Resources - Marine Protected Areas in Hawaii

Honolulu Advertiser Supplement (Mar. 2005)

PDFPart 1: Marine Protected Areas in Hawaii
(1.84 MB PDF document)

PDFPart 2: Marine Protected Areas Map
(135 KB PDF document)


PDFUniversity of Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment & Monitoring Program Study


PDFNOAA Web Site on Coral Reef Ecology


PDFHawaii Coral Reef Network